Wednesday, June 10, 2020

The price of conventional energy - Free Essay Example

Introduction The price of conventional energy is on the rise, due to the ever-widening gap between demands and supply. The main reason for such shortages is the depletion in natural resources, such as coal, which is the main fuel used for electrical energy generation. Since these fuels are made up of carbon compounds, burning them has rapidly increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over the last 100 years. This has brought about a chain reaction of hazards such as global warming, climate change, destruction of ecosystems, etc with predictions for adverse outcomes in the future. In response to this threat and to initiate an end to such processes, the UN agreed the Kyoto Protocol in Japan in 1997. This requires industrialised nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5% of 1990 levels by 2008-2012. The UK has agreed to meet this target and furthered its promise by setting a goal of 50% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050[ ]. Part of its government energy policy is to increase the contribution of electricity supplied by renewable energy to 10% by 2010 (Blackmore P, 2004). A similar promise has been undertaken by many world nations, which has led to a plethora of new and innovative methods for power generation. Renewable is the key to climate friendly forms of energy, due to the absence of emissions detrimental to the environment (Stiebler M, 2008). It includes energy derived from sunlight, wind, wave, tides and geothermal heat. Out of the afore mentioned resources, geothermal heat is restricted to only limited locations on the globe while wave and tidal power is still in its research stage. Thus sunlight and wind are the key elements that can be tapped for energy generation. However, on comparison between the two systems, wind energy systems are more advantageous both in availability of resources and cost of generation. This report mainly focuses on wind energy, with a keen interest on harvesting it for ventilation and power generation purposes in high-rise buildings. Plan forms that aid this purpose will be studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics to understand the flow of wind in and around a thirty-storey structure and the building configuration well suited for natural ventilation and wind turbine integration would be identified at the end of the test. To obtain a complete picture of wind flow patterns and to closely mimic real life situations, the wind will be simulated from different directions at different wind speeds. Wind energy Wind is the term used for air in motion and is usually applied to the natural horizontal motion of the atmosphere (Taranath Bungale S, 2005). It is brought about by the movement of atmospheric air masses that occur due to variations in atmospheric pressure, which in turn are the results of differences in the solar heating of different parts of the earths surface (Boyle G, 2004). At a macro level wind profile differs from place to place depending on geographic location and climatic conditions while in a microstate the immediate physical environment of a particular place modifies the nature of the winds. For example, the velocity of the wind recorded in the countryside which has acres of unobstructed grassland would be greater than that recorded in a city dominated by skyscrapers. Hence to obtain a clear idea of the wind characteristic corresponding to a particular area the wind rose is utilized. They are based on metrological observations and depict the varying wind speeds experienced by a site at different times of the year together with the frequency of different wind directions [ ]. It is the first tool consulted to judge the wind resources of a site and its ability to support power generation. The winds have been tapped from ancient times by means of ship sails, windmills, wind catchers, etc. The history of windmills goes back more than 2000 years (Stiebler M, 2008) when they were predominantly used for grinding grain and pumping water. However, the breakthrough occurred when Charles.F.Brush erected the first automatically operating wind turbine at Ohio in 1888 [ ]. It was fabricated using wood and had a rotor diameter of 17m with 144 blades. The system recorded very low efficiency and was mainly used to charge batteries. The reason behind the poor efficiency was due to the large number of blades, which was later discovered by Poul la Cour who introduced fewer blades into his wind turbine. Though such developments were achieved at an early stage in innovation, it was not until 1980 that the prominent application of renewable energies was sought after (Boyle G, 2004). Wind energy is the harnessing of the kinetic energy prevalent in moving air masses. This kinetic energy for any particular mass of moving air (Boyle G, 2004) is given by the formula: K.E = 0.5mV where, m mass of the air (kg) and V wind velocity (m/s). However this mass of moving air per second is: m = air density x volume of air flowing per second m = air density x area x velocity Thus, m = rAV where, r density of air at sea level = 1.2256 kg/m and A area covered by the flowing air (m) Substituting this value of m in the former equation, K.E. = 0.5rAV (J/s) But energy per unit of time is power and hence the above equation is the power available from the wind. It is also evident that the power is directly proportional to thrice the wind velocity. In other words even a marginal increase in wind speed would yield three folds of the nominal power. This is the critical fact based on which the whole energy process is evolved. However not all of this power can be exhausted since it would lead to nil outflow through the wind turbine, that is no flow of air behind the rotor. This would lead to no flow of air over the turbine causing total failure of the system. According to Albert Betz the maximum amount of power that can be harnessed from the wind is 59.3%. This is often referred to as the Betz limit and has been proven by modern experiments. Some of the advantages of wind energy include: It is based on a non-exhaustive resource and hence can be harnessed for generations. It is a clean and eco friendly way of producing energy. In its working lifetime, the wind turbine produces eighty times the amount of energy that goes into its manufacturing and thus has diminishable net impact on the environment. It does not require any additional resources such as water supply unlike conventional power generation. It can boost the economy of the region (wind farms). Wind turbines: Wind turbines are the modern day adaptations of the yesteryear windmills but unlike their counterparts they are mainly used for power generation. These new age systems come in different shapes and have various configurations, the well established of them all are the Horizontal axis wind turbine and the Vertical axis wind turbine. Write a brief about horizontal wind turbines and vertical wind turbines. BUilding integrated Wind Turbines (BUWT): Building integrated wind turbines are associated with buildings designed and shaped with wind energy in mind (Stankovic S et al, 2009). They are relatively a new way of harnessing energy that is gaining popularity at a quick pace. Small scale wind turbines on house roofs and retrofitting also fall under this category. The design of BUWTs is a complicated affair and involves the careful consideration of various factors. Since turbines are fixed into the buildings fabric its impact on the environment, buildings response and needs of its owners and occupants need to be weighed equally. Also numerous design decisions such as planning, structure, services, construction and maintenance depend on this single process (Stankovic S et al, 2009). With the increase in the scale of the proposal the importance of these factors increases simultaneously. The proposal generally spans from the number, scale, type and location of the turbines together with its annual energy yield and design life. A good BUWT based building should be a wholesome design that does not prejudice the buildings efficient functioning for energy generation. Generic options for BUWTs: Stankovic S et al (2009) explains that the wind turbines can be fixed on to a building in enumerable ways. Each method can accomplish a different level of power depending on the type of turbine used and the form of the building it is mounted upon. On top of a square/ rectangular building: This configuration is on the principle that the wind velocity increases with height and hence the amount of energy generated would be of a higher order (10% increase with wind acceleration). An added advantage is that the turbine would experience relatively little turbulence. But access to the turbine for maintenance and decommissioning works may be difficult. If mounted on tall buildings the turbines may threaten the visual quality of the skyline. On top of a rounded building: This case is very similar to the previous configuration except that with the use of rounded faade the mean tower height can be considerably diminished. Also the rounded profile influences the local acceleration (15% increase in energy). The low tower height favors easy access to the turbine but leads to blade flicker and noise issues. Concentrator on top of a rounded building: This case is well suited to areas with bi-directional winds (20% energy increase over a free standing equivalent due to local acceleration). Vertical axis wind turbines are better suited for this feature while Horizontal axis wind turbines need to be suitably altered to achieve the same status. The building spaces that act as concentrators may be inhabited with suitable acoustical treatment. This case also encounters the same drawbacks as listed in the previous case. Square concentrator within a building faade: As before, this configuration takes advantage of the higher quality winds at higher altitudes and local acceleration thereby achieving 25% increase in energy and 40% increase for bi-directional winds. This option is best suited for buildings with narrower profiles. There may be a loss in the saleable area of the building but the aperture can be converted into an exclusive feature such as a sky garden. The opening also relieves the wind loading on the buildings facade leading to simpler structural solutions. Vertical axis wind turbine is the only choice for integration due to its square swept area. Circular concentrator within a building faade: This is very similar to the square concentrator except the opening is accustomed to hold pitch controlled horizontal axis wind turbines with fixed yaw. Also, a 35% increase for uniform wind and 50% increase in energy for bi-directional winds are achievable in this method. But on the down side, this technique is more expensive due to the cylindrical shroud. On the side of a building: In this technique, an increase in 80-90% in energy than the freestanding equivalents is achievable only if the building form is optimized to the local wind character. Only reliable vertical axis wind turbines can be used for power generation due to access issues. For higher swept area, more number of turbines should be used. Between multiple building forms: This type of an option opens out many doors for a range of architectural forms. Unlike the previous cases, the buildings orientation, form, shape and spacing play key roles in the performance of the turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines are better suited for this purpose. Guidelines for BUWTs: The following are some guidelines outlined by Stankovic S et al (2009) for incorporating wind turbines into a structure: BUWTs should be tailored to the specific site for good results. Adequate wind resources should be available on site. If however if the site is under resourced steps are to be adopted to deliberately elevate the quality of the wind through the buildings form or turbine. The impact of its surroundings should also be considered before commissioning such a project. The dominating wind direction and its intensity should be observed from meteorological data. This would help in determining the form and orientation of the building together with finalizing the position of the wind turbine to make the most out of the available resource. Environmental impact assessment corresponding to the site should be carried out to foresee the adverse effects the turbines may create. Acoustic isolation may be sought for in some areas within the building if it lies at close proximity to the rotor. Natural ventilation and day lighting qualities of the building may be challenged and forced to settle for artificial means. The type and position of openings, external shading devices, smoke extracts etc should be handled with appropriate care to avoid draught winds. Access to the wind turbines for maintenance and decommissioning must be provided suitably. The aesthetic quality of the mounted turbines must harmonize with its surroundings and should not over power the pedestrians at ground level. To this end well suited screening devices such as canopies, screens and landscape may be utilized as per the necessity. The overall success of BUWT project depends on its ability to deliver the expected power. Inability to comply with this effect would result in the failure of its intended purpose from both an environmental and design point of view. Thus the electricity demand of the building and the level to which this would be met with should be estimated prior to turbine design to secure maximum benefits. Wind flow prediction and energy yields: For any project to be successful, Wind flow and building design (Taranath Bungale S, 2005) When the air moves in a vertical direction it is referred to as a current. These currents play a major role in meteorology whereas the gradual decrease in wind speed and high turbulence of the horizontal motion of air, at the ground level, are vital in building engineering. In urban areas, this zone of turbulence extends to a height of approximately one quarter of a mile aboveground and is called the surface boundary layer. Above this layer, the horizontal airflow is no longer influenced by the ground effect. The wind speed at this height is known as the gradient wind speed, and it is precisely in this boundary layer where most human activity is conducted. Characteristics of wind: The flow of wind is complex because many flow situations arise from the interaction of wind with structures. A few characteristics of wind include: Variation of wind velocity with height: The viscosity of air reduces its velocity adjacent to the earths surface to almost zero. A retarding effect occurs in the wind layers near the ground, and these layers in turn successively slow the outer layers. The slowing down is reduced at each layer as the height increases, and eventually becomes negligibly small. The height at which velocity ceases to increase is called the gradient height, and the corresponding velocity, the gradient velocity. At heights of approximately 366m aboveground, the wind speed is virtually unaffected by surface friction, and its movement is solely dependant on prevailing seasonal and local wind effects the height through which the wind speed is affected by topography is called the atmospheric boundary layer. Wind turbulence: Motion of wind is turbulent and it occurs in wind flow because air has a very low viscosity-about one-sixteenth that of water. Any movement of air at speeds greater than 0.9 to 1.3 m/s is turbulent, causing air particles to move randomly in all directions. Vortex shedding: In general, wind buffering against a bluff body such as a rectangular building gets diverted in three mutually perpendicular directions. However, only the longitudinal winds and the transverse winds or crosswinds are considered in civil engineering. When a free flowing mass of air encounters a building along its path, the originally parallel upwind streamlines are displaced on either side of the building. This results in spiral vortices being shed periodically from the sides into the downstream flow of the wind, called the wake. At relatively low wind speeds the vortices are shed, that is, break away from the surface of the building and an impulse is applied in the transverse direction. Distribution of pressures and suctions: When air flows around the edges of a structure, the resulting pressures at the corners are much in excess of the pressures on the center of elevation. This has been evident by the damages caused to corner windows, eave and ridge tiles, etc in windstorms. Wind tunnel studies conducted on scale models of buildings indicate that three distinct pressure areas develop around the building. They are: Positive pressure zone on the upstream face (Region 1) Negative pressure zone at the upstream corners (Region 2) Negative pressure zone on the downstream face (Region 3) The highest negative pressures are created in the upstream corners designated as Region 2. Wind pressures on a buildings surface are not constant, but fluctuate continuously. The positive pressure on the upstream or the windward face fluctuates more than the negative pressure on the downstream or the leeward face. The negative pressure region remains relatively steady as compared to the positive pressure zone. The fluctuation of pressure is random and varies from point to point on the building surface. Nearby buildings can have a significant influence on wind forces. If they are the same height as the structure being considered then they will mostly provide shelter, although local wind loads can be increased in some situations. Where surrounding buildings are significantly taller they will often generate increased wind loading (negative shelter) on nearby lower structures. Shelter can result from either from the general built-environment upwind of the site or from the direct shielding from specific individual upwind buildings (Blackmore P, 2004). Natural ventilation The three natural ventilation airflow paths in buildings are (Pennycook, 2009): Cross ventilation Single-sided ventilation Passive stack ventilation Advantages of cross ventilation: Greater rates of ventilation can be achieved under amicable weather conditions. Can be utilized for deep-plan spaces with operable windows on the external wall. Incumbents have control over ventilation. Relatively cost free. Can be incorporated with thermal masses. However, it has certain limitations such as: Internal space layout must be hindrance free for easy, clear flow of air. Internal partitions must be within 1.2m height and tall cupboards must be placed alongside the windows. Natural ventilation can occur only under the presence of suitable winds. Poor planning and positioning of windows may cause disruptive draughts and gusts. Winter ventilation is problematic. Unsuitable for buildings located in noisy and pollution prone environments. The requirements of fresh air supply are governed by the type of occupancy, number and activity of the occupants and by the nature of any processes carried out in the space (Koenigsberger et al, 2001). When natural ventilation is stipulated for good indoor air quality, the amount and nature of the dominant pollutant source in the space should be identified. Based on this data the ventilation rate for the space can be calculated such that the pollution level does not cross a preset specific mark. Generally the concentration of the pollutants decreases with the increase in airflow rate (Figure 1). However, in terms of thermal comfort especially during winter the heating requirement of the building will increase with the ventilation rate. This demand varies with time, wind characteristics of the place, opening and closing of windows and doors by its occupants and the thermal state of the building. In summer, cooling is ideal for both the building and its occupants to prevent internal heat gains. By directing the high velocity wind around the human body the evaporative rate at the skins surface can be increased thereby achieving a cooling sensation. The recommended upper limit of indoor air movement is 0.8 m/sec, which permits the inhabitants to occupy a space about 2C warmer and 60% relative humidity with optimum comfort. The traditional way to cool buildings is to provide large openings along the exterior wall with the principle that higher the ventilation rate greater the loss of heat to the external environment. But such an arrangement would work only when the outdoor temper ature is in the range of comfort zone. When controlled indoor environments are desired especially during the occupancy periods night ventilation is recommended. In this technique the building is cooled at night so that it can absorb the heat generated during the day (Allard F, 1998). Based on wind tunnel experimental observations, the factors that affect the indoor airflow are: Orientation: External features: Cross-ventilation: Position of openings: Size of openings: Control of openings: Literature review The following are studies that have been made of different aspects of wind using Computational Fluid dynamics. CFD evaluation of wind speed conditions in passages between parallel buildings: This analysis undertaken by Blocken B et al (2007) mainly focuses on the wind speed conditions in passages between parallel buildings in combination with the accuracy of the commercial CFD code Fluent 6.1.22 when the wall-function roughness modifications are applied to them. The Venturi effect is also studied to determine the amount of increase in wind speed in the passage due to the decrease in flow section. The results obtained were compared with various previously proven experiments carried out by experts in the field. As the title indicated the case undertaken involves a pair of rectangular buildings measuring 40m x 20m x 20m, placed adjacent to each other and separated by a narrow passage. The width of the passage is widened (for example, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 m) with every case to clearly understand the Venturi effect. The dimension of the computational domain is 20.5x14x18m3; the whole setup is placed at a distance of 5m from the inlet and simulated with a wind speed of 6.8m/sec based on initial results. The results recorded at the end of the simulation process are discussed as follows. They are based on the amplification factor, which is defined as the ratio of the mean wind speed at a certain location to the mean wind speed at the same location without the buildings present. As such it is a direct indication of the effect of the buildings on the wind speed (Blocken B et al, 2007). Pedestrian level wind profile: In context to this research, for narrow passages (example w=2m) this amplification factor occurs maximum at the centerline immediately behind the entrance. When the distance between the buildings are slightly increased (example w=10m), the flow streams deflecting off the inner edges of the buildings combine into a large jet stream and records an increase in the amplification factor. However this property is lost when the width of the passage is of a high order (example w=30m). Overall wind profile: To understand the overall wind profile, six vertical lines were identified along the passages center plane for the case of w=6m. The lines depicted the fact that there was an increase in the wind speed at the ground level due to the downdraft of the wind along the front faade of the building and a decrease in wind speed at the end of the passage due to the exit of flow from the passage. Also for these cases, there was no significant increase in the wind speed with the increase in height. Flow rates at different points in the passage: To evaluate the Venturi-effect three fluxes were defined, one along the vertical plane, another along the horizontal plan and the final being similar to the former one but in the absence of the buildings. When the flow rate was calculated for narrow passages, it stated an increase in wind speed by only 8% due to the Venturi effect. However for larger widths the flow rate was lower than the free-field flux. This shows that the wind has a tendency to flow over and around the building rather than be forced through the passage as previously believed. Thus there is a lack of strong Venturi effect and the flow in the passage can be attributed as the channeling effect for these cases. The research also concluded that there were discrepancies in the CFD results due to the use of the roughness factor and advised future users to simulate an empty field before positioning the buildings to clearly identify the difference in results. Further research into the Venturi effect was also implied. Computational analysis of wind driven natural ventilation in buildings: Evola G and Popov V (2006) research focuses on the application of three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Strokes (RANS) modeling on wind driven natural ventilation with specific detail to the pressure distribution and flow pattern within the building. The various cases would be simulated with the standard k-e model and the Renormalization Group theory (RNG). Within the framework of natural ventilation both single sided ventilation and cross ventilation would be studied and the results obtained using CFD will be compared with LES models and empirical methods for its reliability. The building undertaken consists of a 250mm x 250mm x 250mm cube punctured with a centrally located 84mm x 125 mm opening on the wind ward side (Case 1). In Case 2 the door like opening is placed on the leeward side and in Case 3 both the openings are retained to test the cross ventilation principle. On comparison between the CFD results obtained for Case 1 and 2, Case 2 portrays a better flow pattern especially at the mouth of the opening. This leads to a better ventilation rate than Case 1 though in contrast to the theoretical data that good ventilation rate and flow patterns are achievable only when the opening faces the incoming winds. To establish the phenomenon further experimentation into the field was suggested. Between Cases 1, 2 and 3, cross ventilation clearly stands out as the best option of them all, both in terms of velocity and distribution. Also the study concluded that the measured RNG results matched approximately to the theoretical results of Cases 1 and 2. But a significant amount of deviation was observed in Case 3. The RNG model was only slightly intense than the k-e model generally used. The research also concluded that there were discrepancies in the CFD results due to the use of the roughness factor and advised future users to simulate an empty field before positioning the buildings to clearly identify the difference in results. Further research into the Venturi effect was also implied. CFD modeling of unsteady cross-ventilation flows using LES: This research undertaken by Cheng-Hu Hu et al (2008) employs the LES method to investigate the fluctuating ventilation flow rate induced by the wind for a cross-ventilated building. The results from CFD were compared with those previously acquired from wind tunnel tests. The building proposed for the study consists of a rectangular box with two openings of equal size located opposite to each other. The wind is simulated from 0(Case 1) and 90(Case 2) to the building at a rate of 1m/sec, to study the flow pattern in and around it. When the air approaches the building the ventilation rate is unsteady at the mouth of the openings due to turbulence and in the flow separation layer due to shear. In Case 1 the wind is accelerated through the opening and directed downwards inside the building. This phenomenon brings about a circulation of the internal air before guiding the wind upwards and out through the window on the leeward side of the building. The air exchange occurs due to the mean flows through the opening. In Case 2 where the wind is parallel to the windows, the air moves in and exits rapidly causing fluctuating flows thereby leading to air exchange. In this case turbulence prone areas are formed at the rear of the building. When these results were compared with the wind tunnel data, Case 1 portrayed similarities while Case 2 had major deviations. Further study was proposed for understanding the reason behind such deviations. Case studies The Bahrain world trade centre was the worlds first building to aesthetically incorporate commercial wind turbines into the fabric of the building [ ]. The complex consists of a three-storied sculpted podium and basement from where the 240m high towers rise up into the sky. The two towers comprise of 51 floors each and are connected by means of three, 31.5m span bridges at 60m, 96m and 132m levels [ ]. They are oval in section for aerodynamic reasons and follow a shallow V-shape in plan for adequate blade clearance. Sitting on each of this 70 ton spandrel is an 11-ton nacelle to which the industry approved horizontal axis wind turbines are fixed by special means. The turbine has a rotor diameter of 29m and is stall controlled with centrifugally activated feathering tips for air brakes (Killa S Smith Richard F, 2008). The turbines are oriented facing the Arabian Gulf intercepting the path of the dominant winds. The decision to harness the prevailing wind was thought of from the initial stage drawing inspiration from the regional wind towers and the vast sails of the traditional Arabian Dhow which utilise the wind to drive them forward. Numerous Computational fluid dynamics models and wind tunnel tests were carried out to determine the final building form. The result was a skyward tapering, elliptical structure, carved out by the wind that functions as aerofoil sections (Wood A, 2008). The shape and spatial relationship of the towers aid in adhering the wind in a S flow whereby the center of the wind stream remains nearly perpendicular to the turbine within a 45 wind azimuth, either side of the central axis (Killa S Smith Richard F, 2008). This increases the turbine efficiency, number of working hours and minimizes the stress on the blade caused by yawing [ ]. Furthermore, the two towers were placed such that they create a V shaped space in between them, as well as a negative pressure behind the blocks, thus creating an opportunity for the Venturi effect to accelerate wind velocity onto the turbines (Binder G, 2006) by as much as 30% more than the source wind (Killa S Smith Richard F, 2008). The tapering profile combined with the increased onshore wind velocity at higher altitudes creates a near equal regime of wind speed on each of the three turbines, irrespective of its location, allowing them to rotate at the same speed and generate approximately the same amount of energy (Wood A, 2008). Table 1: Annual energy output Turbine Energy yield (MWh/year) 1 340-400 2 360-430 3 400-470 (Reproduced from Killa S Smith Richard F, 2008) The amount of energy that can be tapped annually from the three turbines is tabulated above. When in auto mode they are programmed to operate only during the peak energy demand periods with northerly wind speeds of 4-19m/s [ ]. The nominal power output of a single turbine is 225 kW which will be achieved at a wind speed of 15 to 20m/s, depending on air density. The energy yields are expected to be 11-15% of the total energy requirement of the office building. In carbon emission terms this equates to an average of 2,900 kgC (oil burning power station) or 2,000 kgC (gas burning power station) (Killa S Smith Richard F, 2008). However, they are estimated to generate substantial more energy in the future with increase in needs (Wood A, 2008). This 309.6m tall structure is expected to be the worlds most energy-efficient super tall office tower upon completion [ ]. It holds many innovative sustainable features including building integrated wind turbines. The buildings form was developed through a careful understanding of solar and wind patterns around the site [ ]. Located at these floors are two, 3x4m openings that lead to two vertical axis wind turbines within. The vertical axis wind turbines were chosen for their ability to harness both the prevailing wind directions with minor efficiency losses (Frechette Roger E Gilchrist R, 2008). The facade also minimizes the interference of wind forces and uses them to ease the structural burdens imposed by high-wind pressures (Smith Adrian D, 2007) with the openings serving as pressure relief valves (Frechette Roger E Gilchrist R, 2008). An additional feature of this silhouette is its ability to funnel the wind (Venturi effect) on to the turbines thereby maximizing the velocity and thus the potential energy rendered from the system (Smith Adrian D, 2007). To obtain a thorough understanding of this effect a scaled model of the building was tested with all possible wind directions in wind tunnel rigs, supplemented by CFD simulations. Both mediums concluded the fact that when the wind approached the opening at right angles, the velocity was greatly reduced. However, an increase of two folds than ambient wind speeds was achieved when the wind was simulated from all other angles. When the total energy that can be tapped from each of the proposed turbines was evaluated, it was noted that approximately the same of amount energy was available from all of them. This revelation contradicted the designers previous assumption that the turbines in the upper floor would yield more than those located at the lower floor due to increased wind speeds at higher altitude. One of the reasons attributed to this phenomenon was that the lower turbines received more downdrafts from the faade above to equalise the incoming winds (Frechette Roger E Gilchrist R, 2008). The energy thus generated is planned to dehumidify the system or be stored in batteries for later use. This theoretical proposal consists of four, petal shaped floor plates separated from each other by means of a narrow space. Like the previous case studies, such an arrangement funnels the air inwards and amplifies the wind speed by four folds [ ]. The power generated is expected to power the communal lighting need s of the inhabitants. Simulation of various building forms This section holds various data about the actual CFD testing undertaken for this dissertation. The buildings are proposed at Leamouth-London where the River Lea confluences with the River Thames. Low-rise buildings of three and four floors surround the site whose presence would have minimal influence on the wind flow pattern of the proposed buildings. Month of year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec SUM 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 1-12 Dominant Wind Dir. Wind probability = 4 Beaufort (%) 39 29 43 30 40 29 34 33 27 29 29 31 32 Average Wind Speed (kts) 10 9 11 9 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Average Airtemp. (C) 7 7 9 13 16 19 21 20 18 14 9 7 13 Select Month (Help) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Table 1: London Heathrow weather data Source: (Accessed on: 25th June 2009) The above listed table depicts the wind profile corresponding to Heathrow, the nearest weather station to the site. On a thorough analysis of the data, it is evident that during most times of the year the wind flows from West to East and Southwest to Northeast, the prime direction for orientation to satisfy both the ventilation and energy generation needs of the building. The Building forms: The following are the building forms undertaken for CFD testing. Each prefabricated concrete structure houses thirty floors, each floor having a height of 4m. The underlying concept for the design of the structures was to bring about the Venturi effect, which was achieved by the incorporation of the narrow space in-between the blocks. In addition, Case 1, 2, 5 and 6 were designed to study the impact of line form, its effects on flow and ability to concentrate the wind at a particular point. Case 3 and 4 were conceived to resemble existing high-rise structures (for example Case 4 is similar in design to the Petronas towers in Malaysia), which have potential for wind turbine integration and successful functioning. The possibility for natural ventilation of these buildings is also simultaneously scrutinised. The wind turbines would be mounted on bridges connecting the two blocks at various levels, similar to the Bahrain World trade centre. However, due to the limitations in structural possibilities, the span of the bridges is restricted to a 20m mark. Furthermore, within the sphere of this narrow corridor various areas are chosen for testing and concluding the best location for wind turbines in terms of maximum annual energy output. Wind speeds and direction: To closely resemble the natural habitat, the buildings are to be tested with three different wind speeds prevalent at three different heights of the structure, from a number of directions. The British Standards Institution (BS5925: 1991) states that the wind data obtained from any regional meteorological center would be recorded at a height of 10m in open country and hence recommends the following conversion to obtain the actual wind speed particular to a terrain: Vr = VmkZa where, Vr velocity magnitude for the given context (m/s) Vm annual wind speed prevalent in the area at 10m height (m/s) k, a dimensionless terrain related constants Z height of the building or specific floor from the ground (m) Since the buildings are located in the city the corresponding values for k = 0.21 and a = 0.33. From table 1, the annual wind speed Vm accounts to be 5.185m/s. Thus the velocity magnitudes at various heights are: Number of floors Height, Z (m) Velocity magnitude, Vr (m/s) 5 20 5.185 x 0.21 x 200.33 = 2.93 15 60 5.185 x 0.21 x 600.33 = 4.2 25 100 5.185 x 0.21 x 1000.33 = 4.98 Table 2: Velocity magnitude at different heights Setting up of cases: The computational domain defines the region in which the flow field is computed. It first of all includes the structure for which the wind flow patterns are to be determined. This structure should be represented geometrically as detailed as possible. Additionally all those buildings or topography that are assumed to have an influence on the structure of interest must be included in the computational domain. The further away these buildings are from the structure of interest the less important is their detailed geometry. After having defined the built area, the distance of the boundaries of the computational domain from the built area and especially the structure of interest must be chosen. The type of boundary condition that will be applied at the corresponding boundary mainly determines the distances. The grids used in the computational domain do not only determine the spatial resolution of the solution but also have a substantial influence on the accuracy of the solution and the it erative convergence. The latter two aspects are mainly influenced by the type of grid that is used and by its quality (Stathopoulos T Baniotopoulos C C, 2007). (Accessed on 1st June 2009) (Accessed on 1st June 2009) (Accessed on 1st June 2009) (Accessed on 15th June 2009) (Accessed on 15th June 2009) (Accessed on 15th June 2009) (Accessed on 15th June 2009) (Accessed on 15th June 2009) (Accessed on 17th June 2009) (Accessed on 17th June 2009) (Accessed on 17th June 2009) (Accessed on 19th June 2009)

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Topics for a Causal Analysis Essay: the Ultimate Convenience!

Topics for a Causal Analysis Essay: the Ultimate Convenience! Introducing Topics for a Causal Analysis Essay Once you have selected the subject, you must make sure your causal analysis essay follows a particular pattern, like the thesis statement, introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. You don't understand what the essay is about depending on the title, and you may appreciate the title only after reading the essay. When you make a causal argument essay you choose a topic which often begins with the word why. An analytical essay isn't a summary! Actually many a causal argument essay that doesn't produce a definitive answer can still obtain a fantastic evaluation. Once you get your subject, you want to set your ideas in the appropriate format. Thus, there's not any reason to incorporate a dictionary definition. You ought to be mindful that sometimes you can't offer a definitive answer. Writing quality essays is the principal purpose of our services. As soon as you've decided on the topic question, it would be recommended to browse through the web to discover some plausible responses. A number of the leading websites offer you affordable support and premium-level quality. Besides, for each kind of writing, you can come across a lot of examples in our database. Ruthless Topics for a Causal Analysis Essay Strategies Exploited You might also be requested to incorporate a conventional conclusion at the end. You will possibly fail the training course. Take your time to thoroughly examine our cause and effect topics list till you locate a prompt that you're excited to write about. For example, you may write about the source of global warming or the reasons that cause an outcome of a personal choice. The Ugly Secret of Topics for a Causal Analysis Essay Cause and effect essay have many sub-types. To get essay online, you merely will need to fill in the application form and you'll get excellent work on the desired topic. At times it can be very tough to consider analysis essay topics, let alone compose the essay. Topics for a cause and effect essay can be found on the internet, or you could brainstorm with a friend and see what you could work out but naturally, you can even find online strategies on writing papers for college. There are quite a lot of tactics to compose an essay so you'll hardly locate an all-included recipe for a great many essay occasions. Essay topics on watergate The questions appear to be simple, but they're difficult fantastic techniques to begin a paper to successfully compose a thematic essay response, an individual must concentrate on the undertaking. Try out another topic and do the exact 5-minute writing test till you locate a topic you know it is simple to write on. This brief guide comprises everything essential to learn to compose an analysis essay. The Debate Over Topics for a Causal Analysis Essay 1 school of thought believes that children who aren't occupied are more inclined to get into trouble. There are lots of topics to choose at and dissect. Not only will receive all of the interest of your colleagues and your teacher, but you're going to find the best grades. Spend some time on studying a variety of forms of literary terms and attempt to memorize a number of them to enrich the content. Start looking For Long-Term Contracts Establishing fruitful contracts The quickest approach to control freelance writing jobs is to set up a crystal clear schedule. On-line shopping entices you to purchase. Find two or three topic questions you want or know a lot about. As a teacher, odds are pretty strong you will encounter a good deal of students who love sports. You must be quite diligent in your approach so you can find with an excellent work. Make a decision as to what YOU think is vital, and you'll likely find yourself better attached to your project than if you simply choose at random. The main reason for the start of the feminist movement. A root causeis the simple reason something happens and can be rather distant from the original effect. The others that are attracted to that specific individual since they feel connected, happy, and comfortable around that individual. When there are certainly lots of health-related causes of insomnia, you may also discuss how pressures at school, on the job or in your social life might let you get rid of sleep. Individuals that have a smoking authority figure in their lives (for example, a parent) are a lot more likely to begin smoking later in life.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Gregory Bateson And His Quest - 3338 Words

Stohs, Alexandra Dr. Barbra Erickson Anth. 480 December 10, 2014 Gregory Bateson and his Quest to Unify our Minds Introduction: Thesis and introduce good old Gregory†¦1/2 page Gregory Bateson was an anthropologist, psychoanalyst, and cybernetics who contributed to multiple subfields within anthropology along with other fields in the social sciences. Bateson never completely settled into one field, but rather, he synthesized his knowledge to incorporate it into his epistemology and methodologies. Gregory Bateson’s contributions to anthropology range from providing new methods of ethnography, helping to establish the field of visual anthropology, influencing ecological, psychological, and linguistics anthropology, to moving cybernetic theory from the natural sciences to the social sciences. Background, Education, and Influences: 1 to 2 pages Gregory Bateson was born in Grantchester, England to an aristocratic family in 1904 (Stagoll 2006). His father, William Bateson, was a prominent geneticist who founded the Cambridge School of Genetics and coined the term â€Å"genetics (Stagoll 2006).† William Bateson was a strong advocate of the work of geneticist Gregor Mendel and named Gregory in his honor (Stagoll 2006). Following in his father’s footsteps, Gregory Bateson received his bachelor’s degree in natural sciences at St. Johns at Cambridge where his grandfather, William Henry Bateson, held the position of master (Levy and Rappaport 1982). After publishing his first paper aboutShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Robert Flaherty s Famous Work Nanook Of The North1235 Words   |  5 Pagesof developing ethnographic film. From Robert Flaherty s objective to showcase culture as art, to Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson’s intent to produce a purely unbiase d and scientific cinematic record, to John Marshall’s desire to present works which would engage audiences politically, one can trace the evolving narrative of ethnographic film itself, climaxing in the ultimate quest for reflexivity. Robert Flaherty’s famous work Nanook of the North (1922) artistically depicts the life of NanookRead MoreErik Erickson : Child Of An Extramarital Affair2795 Words   |  12 Pagesto a Jewish mother named, Karla. His journey of life began with misperception as to who his real father was; this is something that he died not knowing the actual facts. He was rumored to be the illegitimate child of an extramarital affair. Although he searched until the day of his death he never identified or met his biological father. â€Å"At this point I realized that his lifelong quest to find his father would remain unfilled (Friedman, 2000). He was given his mother’s first husband name, SalomonsenRead MoreTeaching Smart People How to Learn8766 Words   |  36 Pagesreview, and leadership training—the professionals were enthusiastic participants. Indeed, creating new systems and structures was precisely the kind of challenge that well-educated, highly motivated professionals t hrived on. And yet the moment the quest for continuous improvement turned to the professionals’ own performance, something went wrong. It wasn’t a matter of bad attitude. The professionals’ commitment to excellence was genuine, and the vision of the company was clear. Nevertheless, continuousRead MoreStrategy Safari by Mintzberg71628 Words   |  287 PagesReactive Process 285 I I The Configuration School Strategy Formation as a Process of Transformation 301 12 Hang On, Ladies and Gentlemen, You Have Yet to Meet the Whole Beast References 375 Index 397 349 EMBARKATION T his trip began with a paper by Henry called Strategy Formation: Schools of Thought, published by Jim Fredrickson in a collection entitled Perspectives on Strategic Management (HarperCollins, 1990). Bruce used the paper in a course at Trent University

Friday, May 15, 2020

Analysis Of Night By Elie Wiesel - 1198 Words

In the memoir Night, written by Elie Weisel, you take a journey through the 1940s, and learn what it was like to live during the Holocaust. Night records the life of Elie Wiesel during his teen years, and the oppression he and his family went through because of their Jewish descent. The Holocaust was a horrifying genocide where Adolf Hitler and the Nazis strived to wipe out the Jewish race, as well as Poles, Slavs, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Homosexuals, Gypsies, etc. Jews were taken from their homes and transported to concentration camps to work until they were seen unfit to do so, and then they were sent to â€Å"the chimney.† The Holocaust resulted in around six to eleven million deaths. Elie Wiesel and his family were taken from their home†¦show more content†¦His personal recording of the events makes it more relatable than reading the facts straight from a history book. This is one of the many reasons that Night is considered a nonfiction memoir, and not an autobiography. A memoir has an informal tone and is filled with emotional truths rather than historical facts like an autobiography. They were stripped of their clothes and dignity when they got up the next morning. Their hair was also torn out and every hair on their body was shaved. They were beaten and mocked by the Kapos. â€Å"In a few seconds, we had ceased to be men† (Elie Wiesel 37). All of them were given numbers. Eliezer was now A-7713, he had no name according to the Germans. They were forced to work, and if they did not, they were sent straight to the crematorium. Eliezer and his father worked in the warehouse. As months went by, Jewish holidays arrived, and Eliezer struggled with the idea of sticking to his faith-based holidays. As other prayed to God and blessed His name, he wondered why. â€Å"Why, but why would I bless Him? Every fiber in me rebelled. Because He caused thousands of children to burn in His mass graves? Because he kept six crematoria working day and night, including the Sabbath and Holy Days? Because in His great might He had created Auschwitz, Birkenau, Buna, and so many other factories of death? How could I say to Him: Blessed be Thou, Almighty, Master of the Universe, who chose us among all nationsShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis Of Night By Elie Wiesel1089 Words   |  5 PagesAn Analysis of Night Black Three Sabrena Hall November 17, 2015 â€Å"To surpass monsters, you must be willing to abandon your humanity.† -Hajime Isayama, Shingeki no Kyojin Night by Elie â€Å"Eliezer† Wiesel is a story that contains many conclusions about humanity as a whole, including the idea that if humans are treated as if they aren t human, and are deprived from proper human interaction, then they are quick to act uncivilized, almost feral. It s unsettling how quickly people can switch to a primalRead MoreNight By Elie Wiesel Analysis817 Words   |  4 Pages The novel, Night told by Elie Wiesel, is an autobiography written about him and his family being seized out of their home in 1944 to the concentration camps of Auschwitz and Buchenwald. Night is the alarming record of Eli Wiesel’s recollections of the passing of his family, and his despair as a profoundly perceptive Jew going up against irrefutably the abhorrence of man. In the beginning of the novel, Elie described his father as a straightforward sort of man. As in the novel Elie stated, â€Å"My fatherRead MoreAnalysis Of Night By Elie Wiesel707 Words   |  3 PagesThe book â€Å"Night† by Elie Wiesel is an emotional read. He tells his story in hopes to influence the world to not act so hateful to one another. He wants to bring awareness to his readers. The way Wiesel interprets his memoire is powerful. Elie goes into great detail about the events that took place in the concentration camp. He describes the way they were treated and their struggle to survive. He explains his story with good attribute to the Germans. The memoire is so effective because these eventsRead MoreNight By Elie Wiesel Analysis764 Words   |  4 PagesYes, I did see this, with my own eyes†¦ children thrown into the flames.† (Wiesel 32). The previous sentence is a quote from Elie Wiesel’s memoir, Night. Wiesel’s memoir is a first person account of a survivor of the Holocaust that occurred between 1933-1945. Over six million Jews were placed in concentration camps and murdered during this time period. Less than one percent of the Jews in the holocaust survived, but Elie Wiesel was one of the very few survivors. He lived on to tell his story of theRead MoreAnalysis Of Night In Night By Elie Wiesel1183 Words   |  5 PagesIn Night, Elie Wiesel shines light upon that when times are rough, it is easy to be selfish. This was clearly captured when young fourteen-year-old Elie Wiesel was watching as the Nazi’s take away his valuables, friends, faith, and family. As if every piece of him was br oken glass, he had to pick himself up along the way. It all started in 1944, in the suburb of Sighet, Romania. It was a marvelously bright day, a beautiful day. But today, the Nazis had forced Wiesel, the rest of his family, andRead MoreNight By Elie Wiesel Analysis716 Words   |  3 Pagescontrary, some individuals lost their religion due to their unimaginable experience in the concentration camps. The memoir Night, reminisces Elie Wiesel’s journey. Forced to go to concentration camps, Elie adapted to a hardworking man to prevent selection. From studying Talmud to looking at the mirror, Elie describes the story in great detail. In the memoir Night, the author Elie Wiesel, exhibits the struggle of maintaining religion through the use of internal conflict. The memoir owns several accountsRead MoreAnalysis Of Night In Night By Elie Wiesel813 Words   |  4 PagesThe Holocaust was a horrible event, one most people hate to think of much less speak of. This event however is the base of young Elie Wiesel’s life and story. The memoir Night by Elie Wiesel is all about his personal journey and place in the telling of the Holocaust. In the book he is sent to Auschwitz as a lamb is sent to the slaughter. He reiterates his transformation during this time, a transformation where he diverts from his Jewish roots and loses his faith in a merciful and Almighty God. Read MoreNight By Elie Wiesel Analysis903 Words   |  4 Pages Eliezer â€Å"Elie† Wiesel, a Jewish writer, professor, political activist, Nobel laureate and Holocaust survivor, acknowledged that â€Å"There is so much injustice and suffering crying out for our attention: victims of hunger, of racism, and political persecution, writers and poets, prisoners in so many lands governed by the left and by the right. Human rights are being violated on every continent. More people are oppressed than free.† When the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, they believed thatRead MoreNight By Elie Wiesel Analysis787 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"To forget the dead would be akin to killing them a second time.†, said Elie Wiesel the author of night. Elie Wiesel is a holocaust survivor, he went through 5 different concentration camps. He was dehumanized, malnourished, and abused. He lost all his possessions, his family, and his humanity. In Elie Wiesel’s â€Å"Nigh t†, the German Army dehumanizes Elie Wiesel and the jewish prisoners by depriving them of family, food, and self esteem. The Nazis’s dehumanized the jews by depriving them of basic humanRead MoreAnalysis Of The Night By Elie Wiesel1385 Words   |  6 Pagesdetermination in people’s lives. Determination is a trait that each individual possesses. However, the degree of this characteristic varies for each individual and depends on the person’s capabilities and willingness to attain a goal. In the Night, author Elie Wiesel provide the readers with an insight of how determination became the guidance for the Jewish people who suffered dreadful torture and endured a horrid lifestyle under the Nazi’s fascist and anti-semitic regime. Furthermore, due to continuous

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Neil Shubin s Your Inner Fish Essay - 1689 Words

Review With a writing style that is enabled by an obvious adoration of the subject, Neil Shubin explores the predecessors of the human species in his book Your Inner Fish. Shubin draws upon his unique background as a paleontologist, embryologist, and geneticist to trace defining phenotypical traits that are inherent to humans to even the simplest of organisms. He delves into the difficult details of evolution that have long remained mysteries until recent years, specifically analyzing the transition from water to land, the rise of vision, basic body plans and scent. The magic of the book is that although these discoveries required the brightest minds of the past two centuries, Shubin unwraps them in a delightful manner that is interesting to both high school student and university professor. Your Inner Fish is meant to be persuasive, to educate and formulate opinions. By tracking these seeming complexities of human development, Shubin attempts to persuade a broad audience in the veracity of the common ancestor. Although the premise of the book is based on evolution, Shubin’s purpose in writing the book cannot be defined by such broad terms. He is not interested in simply proving that evolution occurs; in fact, he treats such a consensus as being already understood. It is the actual mechanism that interests Shubin, the path that was taken by the common ancestor that eventually whereon organisms diverged and became the human species. The beginning of the bookShow MoreRelatedeig1213804 Words   |  16 Pages- Finding Your Inner Fish 1. Explain why the author and his colleagues chose to focus on 375 million year old rocks in their search for fossils. Be sure to include the types of rocks and their location during their paleontology work in 2004. The author and his colleagues specifically chose to focus on 375 million year old rocks in their search for fossils because this was the time frame that provided fish that would be useful to study from. The 385 million year old rocks provided fish that look

Beowulf - Profile of an Epic Hero Essay - 617 Words

Epic Beowulf A hero, in the traditional sense of the word, is generally a protagonist in a story whose overwhelming power is the only which can defeat the evil of the day. In a classic example of this comes Beowulf, a novel adaptation of the epic Anglo-Saxon poem by Robert Nye. The main character and namesake of the story is Beowulf, an adventurous young hero. When he hears the tales of the monster Grendel that terrorizes the Danish kingdom, he immediately has the urge to lend his assistance to the situation, knowing that he is the only one who can defeat the evil. Not only is Beowulf a hero, he is an epic hero. An epic hero, by definition, is identified by the following characteristics: 1. A hero of noble birth, sometimes†¦show more content†¦Beowulfs comitatus is common in nearly all epic heroes and showcases his devotion and loyalty even more. Beowulf giving up the treasures bestowed upon him by Hrothgar shows both his devotion to his king and his generosity, both classically defining traits in an epic hero. However, Beowulf does not exhibit all of the qualities of the epic hero. Beowulfs tragic foil is not that of a disgraced king, but that of one of the kings servants. Unferth, a knight of King Hrothgar is swayed by evil power of Grendel and his mother. This evil inside, and possibly a bit of jealousy, caused Unferth to kill Aeschere, a thane to Hrothgar. This evil desire within Unferth ultimately brought about his end, being decapitated by Grendels Mother. Unferth being the flaw in the story differs than that of a traditional epic her story, and is one of the few points that does so. Beowulf overall was a highly skilled and highly intelligent warrior with little fear and an overpowering stench of goodness. Beowulfs ability to get himself out of situations by thinking positively and somehow inflicting fear on those around him gave him much admiration. Beowulf was I am sure an idol and role model to many, and a disappointment to none; as was this story inShow MoreRelatedEssay on Beowulf - Profile Of An Epic Hero586 Words   |  3 Pagesmemory, but are lost in time, and some write them down to be remembered forever as a part of history. Beowulf is one such story that has been mysteriously remembered for many centuries. I’ve very much enjoyed reading Beowulf. However, since this story has been around for so long many people have added, reduced, or omitted bits and pieces of the story. In other words, it has become an almost epic legend, never knowing if it was real or if it is rumor. And like any rumor being told to others, the storyRead MoreThe Epic Poem B eowulf 3048 Words   |  13 Pages Given, the current high profile debate with regard to dating the epic poem Beowulf, it is quite surprising that some scholars go as far as placing it during the Vendel era around 550 - 793 CE. Eventhough it is considered as a kind of folk tale, many are those who believe it happened towards the early Vendel era. As a rebuttal to this point, it might be convincingly argued that this period is also referred to as the Germanic Iron Age. Moreover, this era saw the rise of Norse mythology, which is veryRead MoreThe Impact Of Christian Features On Beowulf3125 Words   |  13 PagesELMARRACHI 11 AMINE ELMARRACHI Professor: Dr. Robinson ENG-205 Research paper 11/21/2015 The Impact of Christian Features on Beowulf. Given, the current high profile debate with regard to dating the epic poem Beowulf, it is quite surprising that some scholars go as far as placing it during the Vendel era around 550 - 793 CE. Even though it is considered as a kind of folk tale, many are those who believe it happened towards the early Vendel era. As a rebuttal to this point, it mightRead MoreThe Impact Of Christian Features On Beowulf3125 Words   |  13 PagesELMARRACHI 11 AMINE ELMARRACHI Professor: Dr. Robinson ENG-205 Research paper 11/21/2015 The Impact of Christian Features on Beowulf. Given, the current high profile debate with regard to dating the epic poem Beowulf, it is quite surprising that some scholars go as far as placing it during the Vendel era around 550 - 793 CE. Even though it is considered as a kind of folk tale, many are those who believe it happened towards the early Vendel era. As a rebuttal to this point, it mightRead MoreThe Epic Poem Beowulf 3137 Words   |  13 Pages11 Given, the current high profile debate with regard to dating the epic poem Beowulf, it is quite surprising that some scholars go as far as placing it during the Vendel era around 550 - 793 CE. Eventhough it is considered as a kind of folk tale, many are those who believe it happened towards the early Vendel era. As a rebuttal to this point, it might be?convincingly argued?that this period is also referred to as the Germanic Iron Age. Moreover, this era saw the rise of Norse mythology, whichRead MoreEpic Heroes : The Ideal Hero873 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history, epic heroes have defined the ideal characteristics of a society. Beowulf and Aenus are perfect examples of the ideal hero created from the mind of a creator, for the purpose of defining a society. Most epic heroes share certain character traits such as bravery, courage, determination, hubris or intelligence. It has been noted that sometimes epic heroes appear to simply be lucky or helped along by the gods and rely le ss on their own abilities. However, there are some heroes whoRead MoreWilliam Chaucer s The Wife Of Bath1347 Words   |  6 Pagesaccustomed angelic Christian that has to repent and believe in God. British literature begins to introduce a new archetype for women that writers follow in stories by describing them with motherly characteristics and taboo ideas in texts, such as the epic poem, Beowulf, Geoffrey Chaucer’s â€Å"The Wife of Bath’s Prologue† and â€Å"The Wife of Bath’s Tale† in The Canterbury Tales, and the play named The Beggar’s Opera, which brings forth the idea of what is morally acceptable characteristics for women in literature

Decision Tree and Vector Analysis in HRM Theory

Question: Describe about the Decision Tree and Vector Analysis in HRM Theory? Answer: Jesus in all his glory and might sought only to serve and even though, He was theSon of God. He who, suffered for our sins, theSon of God chose to serve us humble beings. And as through his action, on Earth and Heaven, the Son of God, Jesus Christ hand out us with utmost of passion and care. He bore our sins, and made intercessionfor the transgressors (Bondarouk, RueÃÅ'ˆl Looise, 2011).When our savior walked among us, He was despised and rejected by the humanity. Moreover, He did not bear any royalty or beauty to attract us towards him, for He wanted the title of servant. Also, in this endeavor, He went unspeakable lengths, served us rigorously, to attain the title. He took our pain and our suffering, but we naively considered him punished by God (Townsend, Wilkinson, Allan Bamber, 2011). Nevertheless, the truth was our savior, suffered the pain for our transgressions and was crushed for our iniquities. He suffered our punishment and brought us peace. In addition, as He was wo unded, we were healed of our sins and transgressions. We had lost our way, and Jesus, our savior showed us the path. Like sheep gone astray, we all went our own way (Chanda Shen, 2009). TheLord has laid on him, the punishment for us all. He was struck by theLord, for our transgression and our iniquity. The punishment we were to bear was all laid on him. Also, He, our accurate savior took our pain to give us peace. He went through unspeakable punishment, for the transgressions of all of us. He was tested by theLord, as we are tested. So Jesus Christ, theSon of God, as He sits on his throne of grace in Heaven knows our pain. He walked the path of righteousness, and servitude, and, therefore showed us the path to follow. He showed us the path of righteousness and servitude (Gilbert, De Winne Sels, 2015). And He passed through the hurdles that may come, and He showed how to overcome them. He modeled the path He wishes us to follow. Here great savior, came down among us, lived as one o f us, and suffered our transgressions to show us the path of righteousness. Also, He did not only preach but pursued the path to show us how to lead through servitude. All true Christian must follow the command of the great Savior, by which He lived, and that is to serve. One must serve to lead, for without suffering the same as our fellow Christian, we can never realize their pain (Tsui Lai, 2009). Therefore, the path of our savior and his command is to lead through servitude, and to repent for the transgression of our fellow humble beings. To follow the command of our savior, we must be selfless in our service, and never should we choose to serve for the fruits it may bear ("HRM and Quantitative: Decision Tree and Vector Analysis in HRM Theory, 2014). The path of our Savior is a selfless one. Only serving from theHeart, with no expectation of what it would yield for us and no discrimination of whom we serve is the path our Savior modeled and commanded us to follow. Moreover, we m ust walk the path of our savior to attain his grace when the final judgment comes. The values that are to be perceived to follow the path of our savior, Jesus Christ, the merciful high priest, is that He showed us through his grace. He made atonement for the sins of the people (Jackson, 2002). He was tempted and He suffered for them. Temptations were presented to him at every stage, but He did not sin. We must also follow his path when we are confronted with temptations. The fear of death, governs our action. It hinders our service to god and our bellow beings. The slavery of fear of death must be overcome to follow the path of our savior, as He modeled the path. He, by his death broke the power of the one who Held the power of death, the devil (Lange, 2013). Therefore, showed us the path to follow, free of transgression and sins. Our savior, Jesus Christ had felt no shame in calling those who were made holy by our Lord, for those who are holy and those who are made holy are of the same family. And so we must uphold the path of theSon of God, Jesus Christ and must preach fraternity. To treat our fellow beings as our brothers and sisters to feel as them and serve them truly. To Help those who need, and remember to stay on the course of righteousness even as we are tested. The path has been modeled by savior, as He was tested and tempted, but every time He chose not to sin (McGovern, 2002). And so when we follow his path, we will be tested and tempted. However, as our, savior didnt deter from the path of servitude, neither must we. The temptations and fears are endless. Moreover, the devil will use them to take us away from our path. He will strike the fear of death, but we must stay on course, we must follow the path of our savior, JesusChrist. Under adverse circumstances, we must remember the choice our savior made whenHe was put to test and temptations. He has preached and lived the path of righteousness to show us (Meijerink, Bondarouk Lepak, 2015). He served us to show us the way of life he preached. It is him we must adorn and follow, an d values He lived by will guide us in our way of following his command. I was working in Retail Company named SBC private limited; there was some critical issues created disaster to my workplace reliability. The human resource management were not able to function smoothly as results of this the working hour was extended by the temporary leaders and it become difficult for me to continue my job in that company (Thompson, 2011). However, several times I have completed against the increase in working hour, which affected my level of thinking and impacted in my personal life too. Due to the extension of work hour, I could no able to reach home in time and several family issues have been raised at that particular time (Thornhill, Saunders Skinner, 2004). Furthermore, it can be stated that the inadequate maintaining a function of human resource department results in creating a disaster in my personal and professional life. References Bondarouk, T., Ruel, H., Looise, J. (2011). Electronic HRM in theory and practice. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Chanda, A., Shen, J. (2009). HRM strategic integration and organizational performance. Los Angeles: Response Books. Gilbert, C., De Winne, S., Sels, L. (2015). Strong HRM processes and line managers' effective HRM implementation: a balanced view. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(4), 600-616. HRM and Quantitatives: Decision Tree and Vector Analysis in HRM Theory. (2014). CBR, 13(06). Jackson, T. (2002). International HRM. London: SAGE. Lange, T. (2013). Evidence based HRM: a scholarship perspective with a difference. Evidence-Based HRM, 1(1), 4-15. McGovern, P. (2002). HRM, technical workers and the multinational corporation. London: Routledge. Meijerink, J., Bondarouk, T., Lepak, D. (2015). Employees as Active Consumers of HRM: Linking Employees HRM Competences with Their Perceptions of HRM Service Value. Human Resource Management, n/a-n/a. Thompson, P. (2011). The trouble with HRM. Human Resource Management Journal, 21(4), 355-367. Thornhill, A., Saunders, M., Skinner, D. (2004). HRM and change. [Bradford, England]: Emerald Group Pub. Townsend, K., Wilkinson, A., Allan, C., Bamber, G. (2011). Mixed signals in HRM: the HRM role of hospital line managers1. Human Resource Management Journal, 22(3), 267-282. Tsui, A., Lai, K. (2009). Professional practices of human resource management in Hong